Insights & Info

Insights > M&A Due Diligence – What Exactly Does That Mean?

M&A Due Diligence – What Exactly Does That Mean?

By Generational Equity

Due Diligence

A couple of articles ago we explored the contents and importance of a Letter of Intent (LOI) in an M&A event. As you may recall, the LOI is the document that the buyer and seller negotiate and then sign which triggers the next and most important portion of a deal closing: Due Diligence. 

This 2-3 month period is where most deals collapse for a variety of reasons. Sellers get fatigued by the ongoing, unceasing back and forth with buyers on a variety of topics; buyers lose momentum because of a lack of information being fed back to them or inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the documentation.

It is a serious time in any transaction and unprepared sellers often have a very tough time going through due diligence. This how our friends at Axial describe it:

At its core, due diligence is about uncovering and evaluating risk. During the process, acquirers try to confirm the accuracy of the information the company has provided, as well as unearth any potential risks not detailed — whether intentionally or unintentionally.  In addition to reviewing the paperwork the company provides, most acquirers will also do some form of on-site due diligence in order to speak with company employees and get a better sense of how the organization functions on a day-to-day basis.

I have highlighted the end of the first sentence above because ultimately the level of risk a buyer sees in your business will serve to increase the discount rate the buyer will apply to your future earnings. This in turn, all things being equal, will reduce the payout when the deal closes and/or impact the terms of the deal.

In some cases, if the risk is considered substantial, you may be required to stay with the firm for 3-5 years under an earn-out tied to revenue and/or earnings targets being hit (some of which you will not have direct control over). 

So how do buyers evaluate risk during due diligence? As Axial reiterates, by closely analyzing key areas such as:

Business/operations: How sustainable is your company’s revenue and cash flow? What is your growth trajectory? How do your customers view your product/services?

Accounting: Most acquirers will conduct a “Quality of Earnings” review of the sellers’ financial statements (usually with the help of an outside accounting firm) to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the target’s historical revenues, cash flows, and earnings.

Legal: Acquirers will engage a lawyer to review a variety of legal documents — including organizational documents, customer/supplier contracts, past litigation, real estate leases, and more — to look out for any current or potential legal liabilities.

IT: IT due diligence varies depending on the type of company, and will obviously be more extensive for software or tech-enabled businesses. A few common focuses include security vulnerabilities, ownership/structure of proprietary technology and/or custom software, and software and employee device inventories.

Environmental: What environmental risks are associated with the business? Depending on the company’s industry and risk factors, acquirers will conduct environmental site assessments of any company properties to determine potential contamination, litigation risks, and more.

And believe me, this is just the tip of the iceberg! Most due diligence punch lists contain 200-300 initial questions with, as the process unfolds and risk factors are identified, dozens of follow-up queries. 

So preparation by the seller is critical. The worst thing you can do as a seller is not have your documents in order and delay getting back to the buyer in a timely manner. That in and of itself is a risk factor that makes buyers cringe.

Since due diligence can be so difficult to navigate, we strongly recommend that sellers engage an experienced M&A firm long before you reach that stage. Our clients often tell us that they had no idea going into it how challenging it would be and how, without our assistance, close to impossible it would have been to survive. Don’t take my word for it, have a listen to a few of our clients about it:

In these videos the two key themes you hear are:

  • Be Prepared
  • Hire a Professional Firm to Represent You

Our process begins with a full evaluation of the firm by our award-winning evaluation team. This 3- to 4-month process is really a mini version of the due diligence you will have to eventually endure. Not only do we place a value on the company, but the questions we ask are also very similar to what buyers will ask. So for us, it becomes a key part of the eventual success in closing the deal.

If you are interested in learning more about the services we provide to business owners, give us a call at 972-232-1121 or visit our web page, give us your contact info, and we will reach out to you.

And if you decide to work through due diligence alone without help, remember to be prepared in advance to answer tough questions that are designed to ferret out risk. If you are not prepared, they will find it!

Carl Doerksen is the Director of Corporate Development at Generational Equity.

© 2021 Generational Equity, LLC All Rights Reserved

Make an informed decision

The best decisions in life are informed decisions. We release educational business insights like this every week. Subscribe to make sure you don’t miss the latest news, views and analysis.

Success

Success, you have been added to our list.

Generational Equity’s assistance was invaluable in compiling and marketing our business.
Bil MacLeslie, CEO, ipHouse
Thank you again for all your guidance and support. Any company will achieve what they intend, if they have you on their team!
Rick Nowak, President/CEO, Kurz Electric Solutions, Inc.
I couldn’t have asked for a better team than Michael and Deborah. We couldn’t have done it without them.
Robert Evans, President and CEO of Mealtracker Dietary Software
I must say that I have never worked with a more driven, competent and focused individual as Don Ho.
Jay Dinnison, Owner of Sharpe Mixers
The process was much more involved than I expected and your help, experience and advice was a big factor in making the negotiations go as smoothly as possible.
Terry D. Wickman, President, Keytroller
We had the pleasure of working with Mr. Ahmad Behjati Managing Director, M&A, for Generational Equity during our acquisition of Papa's Dodge in late 2021. Generational Equity and Mr. Behjati represented and marketed Papa’s Dodge. As our primary contact, Mr. Behjati was professional in every facet of this acquisition process, conveying valuable advice most times and assisting us in every step of the process.
Rick Greene of Dobbs Equity Partners LLC
T.D., thank you so much! You are a great leader! I love how you are using your gifts and talents to better others. You are clearly a GREAT COACH! This 3 day session undoubtedly changed the future of our business, and very well may have been the sole catalyst to save my company, my health and my marriage! A genuine “thank you” from the bottom of my heart.
Bryan D. Horn, Owner, Over Under Clothing
After attending a conference with GE, I decided that the value they bring would be worth the expense and as soon as I started working with them, I realized that was the right decision. When we started to get LOIs, Fred Zweifel took the lead on the communication and supported negotiations throughout the process, which got tricky as we moved forward. I learned that it can be common for companies to make a great offer then work to erode that price with their discoveries, but Fred and the GE team kept that from happening.
Caroline Connelly, CEO, OptoTest
Through the sale process, Generational brought in several interested buyers and we closed in about 6 months. I am so glad I accepted that invitation to the conference and could not be happier with the whole process. The team at Generational coupled with their knowledge and guidance was so valuable that in the end, I know I could never have done this on my own!
JoAnn Ellis, Owner of Fondren 5 Star Kennels
I wanted to take this opportunity to thank you for all that you have done for us. Not only did you take care of all the aspects of the sale but took extra care to make sure we knew what it looked like every step of the way. I will definitely recommend your company to anyone that is in a position to or looking to exit their business.
Shane and Johanna Kline, Owners of Vision Upfitters
I wanted to write you a quick letter to express our appreciation and our delight on the outcome of helping us through the process of our recent sale. We are very happy with the end result, and are very happy to be able to move forward with all of our future growth plans.
Terry D. Wickman, President, Keytroller
Your wisdom and experience were invaluable to me during this once-in-a-lifetime transaction.
Ralph Noblin, President of Noblin & Associates
We are very happy with the end result, and are very happy to be able to move forward with all of our future growth plans.
Rick Nowak, President/CEO, Kurz Electric Solutions, Inc.
The most important contribution I think Ahmad made was with his personality and work ethic. He is sincere, efficient, and very hard working. He was available to me at all times, whether it was for specific detail of the negotiation or just to talk through the bigger picture. He listened, advised, and recommended, but never forced his idea or opinions. In the time we worked together, he became a valued colleague and also a friend.
Salvo Stoch, Founder and CEO of Sleeping Partners
We knew it would be a difficult task to have someone really understand our business and our market, prior to researching a possible buyer, so it was imperative that we found someone of your caliber, with definite proven experience in this area.
Rick Nowak, President/CEO, Kurz Electric Solutions, Inc.
I decided to attend the conference and hopefully receive some guidance on how to structure an exit plan of my business. Upon arriving at the conference, I was so impressed with the presentation given by Generational Equity that I set a future appointment that week to discuss the possibility of selling my business with their Senior Managing Director David Robinson.
JoAnn Ellis, Owner of Fondren 5 Star Kennels
Greetings Mike. Thank you for the captivating and compelling presentation you made at the Phoenix presentation last week. Over many years in business yours was the most informative and well-presented presentation, on any subject, that I have ever attended! Your energy and enthusiasm combined with your concise and captivating support of your positions with easily understood examples and data was compelling.
Pete L.
The help you provided us during each step of this process made us feel very comfortable and confident we were selecting the right approach to transition our Company.
Andy Graham, Vice President, Modern Heating & Plumbing
Generational Equity educated and informed us – so that we could be on the upside of a good decision (to sell).
Bil MacLeslie, CEO, ipHouse
Thanks to you, the entire GE team and especially Michael Goss for driving a great valuation, coaching me and driving the process across the finish line. Please let me know if there is anything I can do to support GE going forward. P.S. Given my experience with GE I felt comfortable enough to sign up with Generation Wealth Advisors!
Tom Currier, Former President & CEO, Rackmount Solutions
I am pleased that I was able to work with Andrew Byrd throughout this experience. From the first meeting we had in Minneapolis I felt that I was in good hands. His knowledge and expertise is second to none. He guided the process consistently throughout. I feel lucky that I was pared with Andrew and could not be happier that I chose Generational Equity to handle this major life event. Thank you Andrew and GenEq for everything!
Eric Erlandson, Owner, Action Fastenings, Inc.
I need to say an immense thank you to Don Ho for his stellar work ethic, attention to detail, and tireless effort. Also thank you to the whole crew at GE! Without you, Don could not do such a phenomenal job. We were shooting for closing and funding before the end of 2020, due to the uncertainty of the political landscape and taxes. I am happy to report we closed last week and will be funding tomorrow.
Dr. Caty J. Catron PhD, RN, VA-BC – Owner, Vic The Picc, LLC
We were happy to see the interest in our company and what we cherished has not just a valuable company but an important company to the communities we served in.
Larry Moore, Owner, A Company Portable Restrooms
We were represented by Michael Goss with Generational. The due diligence was grueling and exhausting, but Michael propped us up and kept us motivated throughout the process. Debi and I continued to ask each other how we could possibly make it through this process without the assistance of Michael. Michael's professionalism and knowledge is absolutely amazing, and we are so blessed to have had him by our side as we made our future dreams come true.
Bob and Debi Lee, Owners of BL Technology, Inc and BL Tl Services, LLC
We thank you Eric and Generational Equity making our dream come true.
Larry Moore, Owner, A Company Portable Restrooms
Michael worked tirelessly, He followed every lead meticulously and urgently to make sure nothing was missed.
Robert Evans, President and CEO of Mealtracker Dietary Software
I quickly recognized that Don was working for Sharpe Mixers above all else, and held our interests above others.
Jay Dinnison, Owner of Sharpe Mixers
I would like to thank you and your firm, Generational Equity, for being our valued advisors in our journey.
Bil MacLeslie, CEO, ipHouse
The professionals at Generational Equity then helped develop a roadmap for enhancing the value of the firm and an evaluation report. This was completed by June 14, 2021. We then developed the Confidential Information Memorandum and put Taylor Studios, Inc. on the market by July.
Generational Equity’s professional staff helped me every step of the way. Their network and professionals are the only reason I sold my company this quickly. For me this is a once in a lifetime sale and I was unfamiliar with the process. I was able to lean on them with questions and concerns.
Betty L. Brennan, President, Taylor Studios